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I read most of the LPIC-1 book by Roderick Smith and his PDF Linux+ book. I found that he presented things well but I wanted another book to supplement my . michael:xMichael Jang,,:/home/michael:/bin/bash But the LPIC-1 objectives are limited to bash, and the bash shell uses .. and ichwarmaorourbia.ml file may not even conform to the portable document format created by Adobe Systems. LPIC-1 In Depth, 1st Edition by Michael Jang - ichwarmaorourbia.ml "LPIC-1 In lpic 1 in depth Download lpic 1 in depth or read online here in PDF or EPUB. Please .

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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: Michael Jang Pages: Change the access time of a file. Change the modification time of a file. The dot. For example, while the touch -a xyz command changes the access time of file xyz, the touch -a. In the bulleted list, the dot in the bulleted list is simply a publishing convention. The ls command lists files—and much more. With the right switches, ls can identify file characteristics such as size, ownership, permissions, types, inodes, and modification times.

Run by itself, it reveals just the names of all nonhidden files in the local directory. One command I use frequently is the ls -lhtr command, which lists all files in the local directory, in a long listing -l format, with sizes in a more easily readable format h , based on their last modification times -t , in reverse -r chronological order. It lists the newest files last. Details from the output are especially useful in specifying and changing file permissions and ownership.

Other important ls command switches are listed in Table 4. Try the ls command with each of these switches. Then try combining some of these switches in a single command.

Observe what happens. As suggested by the LPIC-1 objectives, you need to know how to use the cp command to copy files and directories: The simplest version of the cp command copies the contents of one file to another.

For example, the following command copies the contents of file1 and writes it to file2. If file2 already exists, the contents are overwritten.

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Although directories are just special types of files, copying a directory requires a bit more information. In fact, the -a switch enables the copying of directories, along with files and included subdirectories.

If a file1 already exists in that directory, it is overwritten. However, some systems are configured to prevent automatic overwriting of an existing file; in that case, you may get a warning message similar to the following:.

You could just confirm the overwrite by entering y at the prompt. The -f switch would overwrite the file, without the noted prompt.

One possible problem associated with file copying is that the file in the copied location has a different modification time relative to the original file. Such changes can affect the ability of some backup programs to preserve the latest versions of key files. You can use the -p switch to preserve the modification time of a file. Of course, you can use the cp command to back up directories and more.

The -r or -R switches copy all files and subdirectories recursively. In other words, if subdirectories have their own subdirectories, the files therein are also copied.

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The dot, as described earlier, is the preface for hidden file names. So one way to copy all files and directories is with a command like this:. These cp command switches are summarized in Table 4. You also need to know how to use the mv command to change the location of files and directories one by one—and recursively, in a way that applies the same changes to subdirectories. The simplest version of the mv command takes the contents of one file, erases that file, and copies the contents to a second specified file.

For example, the following command copies the contents of file1 , writes it to file2 , and deletes file1: The moving of directories is a bit easier with the mv command, because subdirectories along with associated files are automatically moved when applying the mv command to a directory.

File modification times are also preserved, along with applicable linked files. Although it is similar to the cp command, mv shares only three of the same switches described in Table 4.

Mistakes could be disastrous for any Linux system, especially when the rm command is applied recursively, in a way that applies the same changes to subdirectories. The simplest version of this command removes a list of files cited at the command line. For example, the following command deletes both file1 and file2: You can apply the rm command recursively to files and directories. All you need is the -r switch. But the success of this command is highly dependent on your typing skills.

But it could get worse. Be careful when using the rm -r command; mistakes can easily lead to the deletion of the entire local Linux system. Although there are similarities to the cp command, rm shares only four of the same switches described in Table 4. The mkdir and rmdir commands are straightforward. They create and remove directories.

More can be done with the mkdir command. The process can be reversed with the following command, also using the same -p switch:. The error message that appears is trivial.

The rmdir command works only if a directory is already empty, so there is less risk of losing actual data. The permissions associated with a newly created directory are associated with concepts described in Chapter 8.

Suffice to say for this section that you can specify nondefault permissions for directories you create. For example, the following command, with the -m switch, would limit read but not execute access to the owner of the noted new directory:.

However, users other than the owner of the test directory would have execute permissions on files within that directory. See Chapter 8 for more information how to interpret permission numbers such as , in the discussion on the chmod command.

With the many thousands of files included in a Linux system, tools are necessary to help search for those files. The find command performs searches based on the file name and related characteristics in real time. One example of the find command searches for all files with the. If this command is run without administrative privileges, errors will appear based on the lack of read permissions in a number of directories.

More on the find command, along with the related locate command, is described in Chapter 8. This section describes how you can use the find command to identify the full path to. For more detailed searches, including within readable files, learn more about the Tracker daemon; one source is https: Several different file types are available on a Linux system, as described in Table 4.

After the desired file type is identified, you can use the find -type command, with an appropriate file type and term to start the search for the desired file.

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For example, the following command looks for block device files that start with sd. Depending on the distribution, this command may work only for the administrative root user. Those files can reach into the gigabytes. If you forget the location of the file, it could occupy a lot of space, which you may need for other purposes. ISO is not an acronym, but a reference to standards of the International Organization for Standardization.

Because most ISO files have. It returns the full path to those files larger than MB. This command works fully only for the administrative root user; the associated prompt at the bash shell is the hash mark. The find command can identify three different characteristics associated with a file, based on the last access time, the last time the file was changed, and the last time the file was modified.

These characteristics are associated with the following switches to the find command:. Time when the file was last accessed.

Time when the file, and associated characteristics, was last changed. Time when the file contents were last modified. The access time, associated with the -atime switch, is relatively straightforward; when you read a file, you access it, and no changes are required to specify that access time.

The change time, associated with the -ctime switch, specifies when the file was last modified—even if the modifications were limited to the ownership or permissions associated with the file. The modification time, associated with the -mtime switch, is associated with the last time the file contents were modified. Time for each switch is specified in days.

Yes, the -mtime 1 setting specifies files that were modified more than two days ago. In contrast, the -mtime 2 setting would specify files that were modified more than three days ago.

Several file-archiving commands are available to Linux. Linux archives are based on commands originally used to back up systems to tape drives, and are thus known as the tape archive command, tar. Other related commands collect, compress, and uncompress files.

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This section covers the cpio, dd, gzip, gunzip, bzip2, bunzip2 , and tar commands. The cpio command can archive a group of files. The simplest way to employ cpio is to use it to process a list of files. For example, the following command takes the contents of the current directory, excluding hidden files, and archives it in the test. In other words, because files in local subdirectories are not listed with the ls command, those files are not included in the archive created with the cpio command.

For example, if you use the find command to identify all local RPM files, the following command would pipe that output to a cpio-based archive:. Other major switches for the cpio command are listed in Table 4.

The disk dump command, dd, creates disk images. Although you could apply it to files, it is perhaps most commonly used as a backup tool to create images of sectors, partitions, or entire hard disks. One method you can use to back up an image of a partition is based on the device file. You can also write images to partitions.

If you need to restore from the noted backup, and a partition of the appropriate size or larger is available, the process can essentially be reversed. It saved my data once after my laptop hard disk was about to crash. Yes, the disk was still under warranty, but that was not as important as my data. The gzip and gunzip commands compress and uncompress a given file, based on the LZ77 Lempel-Ziv data compression algorithm. Whereas the gzip command adds a. Several important switches for both commands are shown in Table 4.

The bzip2 and bunzip2 commands compress and decompress a given file, based on the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm, with Huffman coding. Whereas the bzip2 command adds a. The tar command is used to collect a group of selected files into a single file archive. With the right switch, it can compress or decompress that archive in the same formats used by the gzip and bzip2 commands.

One unusual bit about the tar command is that the dash is not required when one or more single-letter switches are used. A common use of the tar command is to decompress the kernel source code, which you may download from the home page of the Linux kernel development team, http: Ker-nel source code archives are made available in both compressed formats, which correspond to the following files for version 2.

Pub Date: LPIC-1 and Each chapter maps completely to a section of the test.

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The appendices include a full glossary of terms and two sample exams for self-testing. Introduction; Part 1: LPI Exam Chapter 1: System Architecture; Chapter 2: Configure a System For Linux; Chapter 3: Package Management Systems; Chapter 4: Command Lines and Files; Chapter 5: Command Filters and Pipes; Chapter 6: To Download Please Click https: SlideShare Explore Search You.

Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads.A find command switch that specifies time when the file content was last modified. Although several other shells are commonly used in Linux, bash is the only shell cited in the LPIC-1 objectives. Linux Administration: In the Linux world, a hacker is a good person who just wants to create better software.

For example, the following command copies the contents of file1 and writes it to file2. However, both the ways of making your preparation for the exam day requires a vital mean that is the book.

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