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Download Guía de campo de las mariposas de Europa diurnas y nocturnas ( GUIAS DEL NATURALISTA-INSECTOS Y ARACNIDOS) PDF · Download GZSZ. Curador de la colección de insectos de la universidad nacional sede Palmira, miembro de la comisión de asuntos disciplinarios del personal. PDF | On Nov 14, , Celina Llanderal Cázares and others Download full- text PDF. 53 Entre los animales, las especies de insectos.

It must be noted, however, that when the first naturalists, colonists, and Jesuits arrived in the country in the 16th century they encountered an abundant, diversified and strange fauna waiting to be documented. According to Ribeiro [ 17 ], the discovery of a whole new world in the Americas generated tremendous curiosity among Europeans about the new and different plants and animals that thrived in those lands.

In the centuries that followed these first contacts, explorers, chroniclers and naturalists from many disciplines and many parts of Europe set out to describe this exotic cultural universe and the fantastic and unique natural world. These historical documents provided descriptions of the local fauna and described the hunting techniques employed by local natives in embryonic ethnozoological approaches. According to Papavero [ 18 ], the indigenous tribes, notably those who spoke the Tupi language, acted as the first professors of natural history in Brazil, transmitting their detailed knowledge of the fauna and flora to the Jesuits, who were, in this area at least, their students.


Based on the information provided by these native tribes, the members of this religious order recorded the first lists and vocabularies of the local fauna. Little by little, expeditions through South America revealed an extremely rich fauna composed of animals of rare beauty, such as parrots and macaws which led to Brazil being called for a certain time the "Land of Parrots" , as well as strange creatures that were very different from any previously known to Europeans.

These findings stimulated the naturalists of that time to formulate various theories about the geographical distribution of species in the world [ 18 ]. Given that naturalists have been recording ethnozoological knowledge since colonial times, one could consider the roots of ethnozoological in Brazil as dating from the 16th century - so that the history of ethnozoology in Brazil blends into the history of zoology itself.

In truth, it can be said that ethnozoology is old in practice but young in theory, for the discipline is not as modern as it might first appear, with roots going back to the earliest relationships between animals and humans.

A number of initiatives began to appear to recuperate zoological data from colonial period documents - an academic area that can be called Historical Ethnozoology.

In analyzing the distribution of publications scientific periodicals, books and book chapters over the years we noted that a large majority of the research on this theme A review undertaken by Oliveira et al.

Figure 1 Temporal distribution of Ethnozoological research in Brazil. Crude data dotted line and data adjusted to an exponential growth curve.

The notable concentration of ethnozoological publications in recent years in Brazil is consistent with the historical development of this discipline. The academic development of ethnobiology in this country is only very recent, and greater numbers of publications in recent years would therefore be expected.

A total of works were published up until July Figure 1. In the 's publications begin to appear in greater numbers, but only in the 21st century did journal production really reach expressive numbers. Kraus , on the other hand, in an interpretation accepted by Wilson and Hannibal , thought them to be separate pleurites. In some diplosegments on the holotype, the entire metazonite seems continuous, and in others, a ventral portion is separate.

Esperanto–English dictionary

Preserved at a slightly different angle, there is no sugges- tion of free pleurites on the paratype. While the breaks occur at almost the same level in each diplosegment, their jagged margins and the lack of rebordering dorsal to the break speaks against free pleurites, though, as in spirobolidans, there could have been a suture at that level which produced a line of weakness along which breakage could easily occur.

We remain open to other interpretations, and any new material may help to solve this problem. The rebordering of the flanges, however, shows clearly that there French Triassic millipedes 7 2 20 3 25 15 30 10 35 5 1 mm head epiproct collum 4 5 antennal base? Hannibaliulus wilsonae, gen. Figures Figure 8. French Triassic millipedes 9 must have been free sternites and the living animals did not exhibit complete rings as seen in Polydesmida and Julida. Specimen MYR2a consists of several segments from the posterior end of another individual, seen in dorsal view and crushed.

The consist- ently broken midline speaks for a mid-dorsal suture in this species Fig. The nearly identical numbers of trunk segments in both specimens 40—44 , given the possibility of counting errors on broken and damaged specimens, raises the possi- bility that both specimens are adults and that the number of trunk segments may have been fixed at some figure around 44 or the two similar counts may merely be coinci- dence.

Further evidence of adulthood is the fact that the last diplosegment anterior to the epiproct bears legs; in juvenile millipedes there is usually one or a series of legless diplosegments anterior to the epiproct. If the specimens are adults, both are females, since none of the legs in the anterior portion of the body are modified as gonopods.


Discussion Millipedes Diplopoda were among the first animals on land, and indeed may have been the very first. These trace fossils have been cogently re- viewed by Wilson , who raised serious questions, particularly about the burrows described by Retallack Well-preserved and well-described specimens are known from Devonian rocks Almond , Shear et al. A greater range of morphotypes of millipedes than seen today may have lived in late Carboniferous coal forests, though helminthomorph types have existed since at least Silurian times [for reviews of the myriapod fossil record and phylogenesis, see Shear and Wilson ].

The Permian Period, however, is virtually a blank as far as fossil millipedes are concerned, though insects are well represented. Hannibal has briefly mentioned Lower Permian millipede fossils from fissure fills in southwest Oklahoma, USA, but these specimens remain undescribed.

Thus we find that there is a very long time gap between the relatively abundant and well-studied Carboniferous fauna and the few known Mesozoic specimens—a time gap which includes the Permo- Triassic extinction event. Mesozoic millipedes are rare and poorly known.

Clasificación de Los Miriápodos

Only Tomiulus angulatus Martynov, has been described from the Triassic, Decorotergum warrenae Jell, from the Jurassic, and Gobiulus sabulosus Dzik, from the Cretaceous. Thus the discovery of new specimens of Triassic millipedes represents a significant step forward in understanding diplopod evolution, particularly as it occurred after the Permo-Triassic extinction event.

The Olenkian is roughly equivalent to the upper Scythian, about myo. The two specimens, which may be parts of the same individual, consist of 15 and about 16 diplosegments respectively. The state of preservation is such that the only possibly significant feature visible is the terraced sculpture of the pro- and metazonites Dzik The terraced sculp- ture of the metazonites resembles that of members of the extinct family Xyloiulidae, to which he assigned the species. But the two orders Spirobolida and Spirostreptida are not closely related.

Despite all this confusion, all that T. So the question as to whether the xyloiulids, as a clade of Palaeozoic diplopods, survived the Permo-Triassic crisis remains open. Jell described Decorotergum warrenae from the early Jurassic of Australia, based on poorly preserved and very partial remains of what does appear to be a diplo- pod, showing smooth prozonites and metazonites with a transverse furrow.

However, at most 12 segments are preserved, and it is not clear from the photographs if these are from the posterior or anterior end, or from the middle of the body. Jell consid- ered the alternatives of assigning the fossil to the Order Amnylispedida, or the Order Polydesmida, but neither is convincing.

The material requires restudy. Gobiulus sabulosus was also described by Dzik , from 13 specimens, includ- ing two heads, found in the Barun Goyot Formation, Khulsan, in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia.

The age is thought to be middle Campanian, about 77 myo. Dzik interpreted this species as a member of the extant order Spirobolida, and tentatively assigned it to the living Family Atopetholidae. Dzik stated that the atopethol- ids are to be found in Central America, the tropical regions of Asia, and in North and South Africa. The specimens show none of the currently recognized synapomorphies of atopethol- ids.

Dzik reconstructed the gnathochilarium and collum of the species in an unusual manner, showing the gula, or gnathochilarial sternite, as a broad, triangular sclerite extending anteriorly nearly to the distal end of the mentum. Such a structure does not occur in any spirobolidan family, nor indeed anywhere in the Diplopoda. It is certainly not, as Dzik maintained, characteristic of the Atopetholidae.

The photographs of the specimen are too unclear to determine if such a reconstruction is supported. However, assignment of Gobiulus sabulosus to the order Spirobolida is not French Triassic millipedes 11 unreasonable, based on general appearance, the small, fixed, but unfused sternites, the median frontal suture of the head and the short lateral margins of the collum.

Another possible Mesozoic millipede,? Xylobius mexicanus Mullerried, , was dismissed by Dzik as having no affinity to millipedes. However, we are not so sure; the photograph in the original article shows an S-shaped structure, tapering slightly at either end, and made up of even-sized divisions about 52 or 53, accord- ing to the text which, at the possible anterior end of the fossil, show longitudinal striations.

The photograph is not clearly reproduced and only an examination of the specimen, the whereabouts of which are not known, would resolve its position. The stratigraphic position of this fossil is also in doubt; Mullerried admitting the possibility of a stratigraphic range from Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous.

Hannibaliulus wilsonae therefore represents only the fourth or fifth definitively known occurrence of the Class Diplopoda from the entire Mesozoic. Our specimens of H. However, we cannot verify that our specimens had separate pleurites and indeed think that was not the case. As the ordinal name suggests, pleurojulidans, while resembling juliforms, differed from them in hav- ing free pleurites.

Chemical defense in diplopods is generally considered a major survival strategy, and defensive glands in typhloiulines, as well as in typhloiuline troglobites, appear to be well-developed. In cave habitats, however, the predatory pressure may be considered lower compared to epigean ones. Cavernicolous typhloiulines apparently lack specialized predators in caves but still may be preyed on by other troglobites, such as spiders and coleopterans.

In the order Julida, no studies on the defensive chemistry of troglobites were available. For Polydesmida and Callipodida, initial investigations on cavernicolous species have recently been published, basically showing no influence of cave-living on the composition of secretions Shear et al.

Individuals of three of the species, Typhloiulus serborum, Serboiulus deelemani, and Lamellotyphlus sotirovi, are pictured in Fig. Table 1.Che omna linguo, en la parolado sorgata, on selektas la maxim plezanta ordino dil vorti.

Such a structure does not occur in any spirobolidan family, nor indeed anywhere in the Diplopoda. Quale on vidas, la Franca verbo continuer ne cesar to quon on agas , tradukesas per durar Progeso, IV, Decido : On repulsas admisar sempre l'eliziono di l'artiklo dop vokalo ed avan konsonanto; unanime per 8 voci. Key words: Typhloiulini, Typhloiulus, Serboiulus, Lamellotyphlus, 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, quinone millipedes, chemical defense, chemosystematics Introduction There is a need for a better understanding of the functional-ecological architecture of cave organisms Romero L'aktiva voco esas formacata per la verbal radiko, a qua on adjuntas la sequanta dezinenci : -ar por l'infinitivo prezenta : am-ar.

Personal pronomi. Specimen MYR2a consists of several segments from the posterior end of another individual, seen in dorsal view and crushed. Advere on dicas : ta homi sentas su la maxim felica, kande… Konseque on devas nultempe repetar la dop substantivo : la homi maxim felica e ne : la homi la maxim felica.

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