published several books on fiber optics. The interested reader is referred to the '' Further. Reading'' section at the end of this chapter for additional reference. Dec 12, PDF | A comprehensive study of the state-of-the-art fiber-optic communication systems is presented Book · January with 15, Reads. This Digital Download PDF eBook edition and related web site are NOT Fiber optics is the hottest topic in communications and this book from the world's.
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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Optical fiber communications: principles and practice / John M. Senior, assisted by ichwarmaorourbia.ml, with permission from Fujikura Limited; Figure (a) from Optical. E Software Package Preface Since the publication of the first edition of this book in , the state of the art of fiber-optic communication systems has. Main Characteristics of Fiber Optics Communication System. - Light propagation in of Plastic Fibers. (Source: ichwarmaorourbia.ml).
Initial tests showed that laser beams could be modulated in intensity to carry a signal and that they could travel many miles through clear air. However, further tests eventually revealed that fog, clouds, or precipitation could attenuate or block the beam, making long-distance signal transmission unreliable through open air.
Short laser links through the air did work reasonably well. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency NASA considered them to replace umbilical communication cables connecting spacecraft waiting for launch with mission control.
Businesses considered lasers for short links through the air between buildings that did not require the Federal Communications Commission license needed for microwave transmission.
However, costs were long an obstacle. NASA went so far as to test lasers for transmitting signals between ground and space or between two spacecraft, but the results were discouraging. In December , astronauts tried to send signals between the Gemini 6 and 7 spacecraft when they were simultaneously orbiting the Earth. Lasers Revive Optical Communications 7 hand-held transmitter, which contained four semiconductor diode lasers pulsed at hertz to carry voice signals, between the two satellites.
But the connection worked only briefly, probably because it was hard to aim the narrow beam at the other spacecraft. Later, NASA and the Air Force spent millions of dollars trying to develop high-speed laser links between satellites, but pointing and tracking proved insurmountable problems until recent years.
The logical approach seemed to be an optical version of the hollow metal waveguides similar to those used for microwave transmissionmspecifically the hollow circular guides that Bell Labs and others were developing to transmit frequencies around 60 gigahertz GHz , called millimeter waves.
Phone companies were running into the capacity limits of the chains of microwave towers that carried long-distance traffic at frequencies of a few gigahertz, so they were trying to move to higher frequencies. Millimeter waves were not transmitted well by the atmosphere, so phone companies planned to transmit them through buried waveguides. Metal pipes with reflective linings turned out to absorb too much light to transmit laser beams long distances. However, Bell Labs developed an ingenious scheme to repeatedly focus a laser beam through "gas lenses" formed periodically along the waveguide, so that the light would not touch the walls of the tube.
It was a challenging and expensive system, but in theory it promised low loss, and Bell had plenty of time and research dollars. STL was blessed with a visionary engineer heading its research programsmAlec Reevesmwho in had invented pulse-code modulation, the basis of converting analog signals into digital form for transmission in modern networks.
Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th Edition
That invention had been so far ahead of its time that Reeves's patent had not earned a penny in royalties. STL engineers experimented briefly with hollow optical waveguides, but the results were not encouraging, and so Reeves decided that STL should not pursue an expensive technology that was better suited to the wide open spaces of the United States than to smaller Britain. Instead, he turned his attention toward a 6jeff Hecht, Reflections: Lasers as space-age technology, Laser Focus World 30, 8, pp.
Their optical counterparts were fiber optics. Fiber optics had originally been invented to transmit images from inaccessible places to the eye. The idea was to align many transparent fibers parallel to each other in a bundle, so that each one would essentially transmit one pixel of the image from one end to the other.
The possibility of looking down the throat into the stomach intrigued physicians, and in Heinrich Lamm, a German medical student, assembled a short bundle and transmitted light through it. The image quality was not good because the fibers scratched each other and light leaked between them. That problem was not solved until two decades later, when American optical physicist Brian O'Brien realized that he could trap light inside the fiber by covering it with a transparent cladding, making it a tiny optical waveguide.
That invention opened the way to practical endoscopes for medical imaging, but nobody was thinking of communications because the most transparent glasses available had attenuation of one decibel per meter.
STL did not seek to duplicate those early optical fibers. Instead, Antoni Karbowiak set out to make an optical analog of microwave dielectric waveguides, which were solid plastic rods that guided microwaves along their exterior. Having worked on hollow millimeter waveguides, he sought to avoid one of their problemsmpropagation of the millimeter waves in multiple modes that could interfere with each other to generate noise.
Karbowiak wanted an optical waveguide that would propagate light in only a single mode, but he found that would require a bare fiber only 0.
Then he left STL to accept a professorship in Australia. Charles K. Kao, a young engineer born in Shanghai and trained in Britain, inherited the optical waveguide project. He had already been analyzing what would happen if the optical waveguide was clad with a layer of transparent material with lower refractive index.
That cladding would confine the light within the fibermthe same conclusion O'Brien had reached a decade earlier. But Kao also found that if the difference between the refractive indexes of the core and the cladding was small, the core diameter could be increased to several micrometers and still transmit only a single mode.
That larger core would collect light much more easily, and confine light much better, than a tiny bare fiber. Bringing the guided light inside the fiber created a problem because the light had to go through the glass rather than air, which conventional wisdom held was inevitably more transparent.
But Kao did not give up easily. Instead of asking how clear the best available glass was, he asked what 7Hecht, City of Light, Chapter 9.
[PDF] Optical Fiber Communications By Gerd Keiser Book Free Download
Lasers Revive Optical Communications 9 was the fundamental lower limit on glass attenuation. Harold Rawson, a professor at the Sheffield Institute of Glass Technology in England, encouraged Kao with the information that impurities absorbed most of the light lost in standard glasses.
With a younger colleague, George Hockham, Kao wrote a paper outlining their case for a single-mode fiber-optic communication system, which he presented at a January 27, meeting of the Institution of Electrical Engineers in London and later published in Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.
The big problem was making a glass fiber as clear as they needed. Initial reactions were highly skeptical, and Bell Labs showed no interest.
But Kao attracted the interest of two British government agencies--the defense ministry and the Post Office's telecommunications division. Military contracts were a big part of STL's business, and the prospects for thin, flexible optical waveguides for use on the battlefield or inside military vehicles intrigued Don Williams of the Royal Signals Research and Development Establishment in Christchurch.
Optical transmission promised a big advantage in the emerging world of electronic warfare. Electronic systems were vulnerable to jamming by enemy equipment and could be disabled by powerful bursts of electromagnetic energy from nuclear explosions.
Optical transmission might present a way around those problems. It already was studying ideas for home phone customer access to remote computerized databases, a very early version of the Web. Critically, its research budget had just received a big boost.
The Post Office also found Kao another important connection--the Corning Glass Works, a long-time leader in glass research. The success of Kao's plan depended on removing impurities from glass, and that was a tough problem because ordinary glasses are made from inherently impure materials. However, Corning had earlier developed a technology for producing fused silica, which is essentially pure silicon dioxide. Corning physicist Robert Maurer saw two key drawbacks to using fused silica.
Its extremely high melting point made fiber fabrication hard, and its refractive index was lower than 8K. Kao and G.
Hockham, Dielectric-fiber surface waveguide for optical frequencies, Proceedings lEE , pp. But Maurer's gamble paid off. The same year also saw another crucial development. Researchers at the Ioffe Physics Institute in Russia and Bell Labs in the United States demonstrated the first semiconductor diode lasers the could operate continuously at room temperature within weeks of each other.
Their lasers lasted only minutes, but that marked tremendous progress on tiny lasers that were a perfect match for the tiny cores of optical fibers. Progress was also being made on LEDs, another potential light source. In , Richard Epworth, a young engineer just hired to work for Kao, used a laser to transmit black-and-white television signals through a meter m bundle of high-loss fibers crossing a large voltage differential.
In mid, a top engineering manager, Stew Miller, described a future in which fibers would be used for in9F. Keck, and R. Maurer, Radiation losses in glass opticalwaveguides,Applied Physics Letters 17, pp. Kessler, Fiber optics sharpens focus on laser communications, Electronics, pp. Lasers Revive Optical Communications 11 teroffice trunks less than about 10 km, and confocal waveguides would span tens of kilometers without repeaters.
Meanwhile, the first primitive fiber-optic links started coming into use. The technology was neither cheap nor easy, the links were short, and the applications were in difficult environments where interference or voltage differentials made electronic transmission impossible. Mostly they transmitted data from measurement instruments. Arrays of 12 optical fibers were used to illuminate the holes in punched cards during the s.
Computer uses at some major research universities and laboratories could access mainframes through remote terminals, but punched card input remained common into the early s. Monopoly telephone carriers, led by the Bell System in the United States, defined the leading edge in telecommunications technology in the early s. The public impression of industry innovation was dominated by Bell's Picturephone video-telephone system, which proved a dismal failure.
But the crucial innovations reshaping the telephone system were deep inside the network.
Starting in the s, carriers had begun converting internal transmission from the traditional analog format to digital signals, using the pulse-code modulation system Reeves had invented. The goal was to eventually convert all signals on the telephone network to digital form before multiplexing them for regional and long-distance transmission. Bell carefully planned the details, setting the standard for four levels of digital multiplexing.
[PDF] Optical Fiber Communications By Gerd Keiser Book Free Download
Copper wires could carry the two lowest speeds, the 1. However, Bell made a few changes to match its requirements. Worried about the problems of coupling light into a core only a few micrometers across, Bell shifted to multimode fibers with cores of 50 or Miller, Optical communications research progress, Science , pp.
That gave up the advantage of single-mode transmission, but Bell thought it would be good enough for to km links. For a laser source, Bell picked nanometer nm gallium arsenide diode lasers, which were the most mature technology available. All in all, it was an entirely reasonable design, which Bell put through exhaustive testing and field trials. The problem was that Bell management expected to phase the new fiber-optic equipment in over many years, as the telephone monopoly planned with the millimeter waveguide, which it had started developing in Yet fiber technology did not stand still, making two key advances in short order.
And Masaharu Horiguchi at Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in Japan opened two new transmission windows in glass fibers, at 1.
The new fibers also promised much higher bandwidth at 1. The new technology was a lifeline for the submarine cable group at Bell Labs, because their old coaxial cable technology could not keep up with satellite transmission. By they had begun developing the special-purpose technology needed for submarine fiber-optic cables, although the first transatlantic fiber cable was not laid until the end of But Bell management was not ready to give up on multimode fiber on land.
The critical push came from one of the upstart companies that had begun competing to carry long-distance traffic. Bell and other long-distance carriers followed, and soon single-mode fiber-optic networks spread across the country. Within a few years, data rates on the long-distance cables reached the gigabit range. Yet the ideas did not go far in the data communications world. The fundamental issue was cost. Connecting a pair of computers with fiber required not just the fiber, but also a transmitter that converted electronic input to optical output, and a receiver that converted optical input to electronic output.
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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. This book will be of value to communications engineers, designers, and researchers.About this book Introduction This book focuses on optical wireless communications OWC , an emerging technology with huge potential for the provision of pervasive and reliable next-generation communications networks.
The new fibers also promised much higher bandwidth at 1. Lasers Revive Optical Communications 13 between them. Control System Design. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency NASA considered them to replace umbilical communication cables connecting spacecraft waiting for launch with mission control. In many areas there is plenty of room to expand transmission capacity without huge new cable installations, but traffic has filled cables in some areas.
Businesses considered lasers for short links through the air between buildings that did not require the Federal Communications Commission license needed for microwave transmission. It features problems, an appendix with all background material needed, and homework.