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Codice Procedura Civile Pdf

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This could lead to the complex phenomenon of abuse of discovery, 37 because paradoxically even the measures 34 N. Trocker, La formazione del diritto processuale europeo Giappichelli, Torino, , at In fact, in continental Europe where the right of access to information and evidence under procedural rules is more limited than in the Anglo-American tradition, substan- 40 R.

Peruvian Guano Co. Malek, supra n.

Adenas et al. For example, in Germany and Austria, significant substantive duties of information are provided in contractual rela- tionships or under family and corporate law, while the jurisprudence has extended such duties on the basis of the general rule of good faith.

In other words, the right of information under substantive law is an autonomous right that can be claimed with a specific and independent action if the obliged person fails to comply. Obviously, it is possible that the request- ed information is also useful in order to get notice of facts and to obtain evidence materials for the protection of another substantive right of a party.

Consequently, the substantive right to information can be claimed within the same process in which the main claim is presented; in such cases, the decision on the substantive right of in- formation should be given before the decision on the main issue Stufenklage. VII Means to Avoid or Limit the Need for Information or Evidence The duty to provide information and evidence enables a party to acquire even from the opponent the necessary knowledge of facts and to obtain means of evidence in order to satisfy the burden of allegation and proof on his 43 With reference to Germany: G.

Therefore, if the general rule of burden of allega- tion and proof is reversed or modified upstream by the legislator according to the principle of proximity to infor- mation and evidence,44 the need for disclosure from the opposing party is significantly reduced.

In some jurisdic- tions, a similar result is achieved through interpretation of the law by jurisprudence that in some matters, such as the liability of a medical doctor for negligent conduct, adopts the principle of proximity to evidence as a criterion for the distribution of burden of proof among the par- ties.

In fact, if the opposing party makes no disclosure of these circumstances or gives only gener- ic and inconclusive information or omit to present evi- dence, the other party is not damaged by information asymmetries since he is able to win the case even without such information or evidence.

The possible consequences of failure to cooperate in discov- ery significantly differ according to the procedural sys- tem: whereas in continental Europe these duties of col- laboration are to some extent granted through negative probative evaluation of non-compliance, in the Anglo- American tradition there is a preference for direct sanc- tions, in addition to other procedural disadvantages.

A violation of the duty of clarifica- tion could be directly sanctioned through the payment of expenses of the procedure, procedural fines or contempt sanctions, including criminal sanctions.

Contempt sanc- tions against parties are significant in Anglo-American civil procedure, especially in the United States,47 where the disobedient party could also be addressed to pay rea- sonable expenses caused by the failure. In order to achieve direct access to information and evidence some jurisdictions provide measures of direct enforcement.

Such measures are obviously not admitted in the case of information to be given orally by the party since the duty to answer questions is not capable of being compelled.

The compulsory acquisition of documents or forced inspec- tion of things and places is also admissible when such obligations derive from substantive law. Some procedural rules also provide tools of indirect enforcement through coercive measures astreinte , as happens in France, where if a party holding evidence materials does not cooperate the judge may, upon the pe- tition of the other party, order him to produce it where necessary under a periodic penalty payment.

In any case, the refusal to give information or produce evidence should at least be sanc- tioned through a negative probative evaluation of proce- dural behaviour of the disobedient party, by which the designated facts have to be taken as established for the purposes of the action, as the requesting party claims or has presumed to be.

Dondi, supra n. Graziosi, supra n. Ficcarelli, supra n. In literature, with reference to Italy: G. Another measure that may be adopted to compel the requested party to collaborate is the decrease of the standard of proof that the claiming party has to satisfy in order to demonstrate the requirements of his action or defence.

In particular, in the case of failure of clarifica- tion, the trier of fact might consider prima facie evidence Anscheinsbeweis sufficient to prove a particular fact. The difference be- tween this measure and the use of the adverse inference sanction is that according to the latter the judge takes the facts as established, while according to the former the trier of fact decides the case by applying the final rule of judgment of burden of allegation and proof.

Peyrano ed.

In Anglo- American tradition, procedural law also includes other procedural disadvantages to penalize a non-cooperative party such as prohibiting a disobedient party from sup- porting or opposing designated claims or defences, or from introducing designated matters in evidence, striking his pleadings in whole or in part, and dismissing his ac- tion in whole or in part.

Some procedural sys- tems, such as the Italian where the witness of parties un- der oath is not generally admitted, provide a party with the possibility to challenge his opponent with a decisory oath.

If the challenged party, without requiring to reverse the chal- lenge, refuses to swear, the fact is taken as conclusively proved against him, while if he swore, the fact is taken as conclusively proved in his favour. It should be stated, however, that perjury is treated as a criminal offense. In Germany, if statements obtained by the interrogation of a party is not sufficient to con- vince the court of the existence or nonexistence of the facts that are to be proven, the court may ask the party to confirm his testimony under oath for a better evaluation of the evidence.

On the contrary, procedural measures that exclude or limit the need for information and evidence through the reversal of burden of allegation and proof, as well as those that determine a fiction of truth against the non- cooperative party, constitute a consistent procedural ad- vantage for a party that claims for the protection of his right, but do not ensure a truthful decision.

Leipold, supra n. Any penalties or other negative consequences are thus avoided through this balanced and prudent perspec- tive which protects a party that in good faith provides in- formation whose objective mismatch with the truth is subsequently demonstrated or that omits to disclose in- formation unknown to him. Therefore, an accessory duty to make a reasonable inquiry under the circumstances should also be imposed on a party in order to obtain full and actual knowledge of the facts.

Consequently, the duty of truthful disclosure pro- hibits not only conscious lies and omissions, but also in- accurate or incomplete statements to the best possible knowledge of a party. Of course, it is very complex to determine the limit 69 With reference to Germany: W.

Codice di procedura civile del regno d'Italia

Vairo, supra n. Joseph, supra n. Masco Corp. Anyway, inaccu- rate or incomplete statements by a party will be tolerated only when, after reasonable inquiry, the party has not reached or has not been able to reach correct knowledge of the truth or the facts. Furthermore, in order to fully satisfy his duty to pro- vide information a party is also not allowed to deliberately or negligently destroy documents or other physical evi- dence while in some cases, such as in medical or profes- sional practice, there is also a duty to record and preserve evidence regarding his activity.

Any violation of these ac- cessory duties is a frustration of evidence and conse- quently an equivalent violation of the duty to disclose. In fact, in the United States, privileges are defined more narrowly, because otherwise the substance of a case would be too limited for a proper presentation at trial before layperson juries.


In Continental Europe, the privileges are usually not ex- pressly regulated with regards to parties; therefore they could be derived from the right of non-parties to refuse to cooperate. However, the consequences of lawful refusal to provide infor- mation and evidence are controversial.

One first solution 71 With reference to Germany: R. Stadler, Die Schutz der Unternehmensgeheimnisses im deutschen und U. Thanki ed. Passmore, Privilege 3rd ed. Mat- thews and H. Graham, Evidence 2nd ed. Paul, Minnesota, , at ; G.

Fischer, Evidence 2nd ed. What is to be to an- alysed now is the case of insincerity or inactivity of a par- ty against his own interest, i. In this regard, it is generally recognized that, after a certain moment, if a party fails to provide favoura- ble information and evidence, the party will not be al- lowed to introduce such information or to produce evi- dence later in the proceeding principle of preclusion.


Therefore, a party acting in excusable error is allowed to waive their inaccurate declaration80 and to introduce fur- ther information or to present further evidence later in the proceeding,81 eventually under penalty of payment of the reasonable expenses caused by the delay or mistake. Advances in Technology Medical Science Series. Carabinieri sul fronte russo, opinioni. Carlo Cantoni tra spiritualismo e criticismo download.

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La trascrizione o l'iscrizione dell'atto contenuto nella scrittura produce effetto dalla data in cui e stata trascritta la domanda; 4 le domande dirette all'accertamento della simulazione e seguenti di atti soggetti a trascrizione La sentenza che accoglie la domanda non pregiudica i diritti acquistati dai terzi di buona fede in base a un atto trascritto o iscritto , anteriormente alla trascrizione della domanda; 5 le domande di revoca degli atti soggetti a trascrizione, che siano stati compiuti in pregiudizio dei creditori La sentenza pronunziata contro il convenuto indicato nella trascrizione della domanda ha effetto anche contro coloro che hanno acquistato diritti dal medesimo in base a un atto trascritto dopo la trascrizione della domanda; 2 la domanda di devoluzione del fondo enfiteutico La pronunzia di devoluzione ha effetto anche nei confronti di coloro che hanno acquistato diritti dall'enfiteuta in base a un atto trascritto posteriormente alla trascrizione della domanda; 3 le domande e le dichiarazioni di riscatto e seguenti nella vendita di beni immobili.

La sentenza che pronunzia la separazione olo scioglimento non ha effetto a danno dei terzi che, anteriormente alla trascrizione della domanda, hanno validamente acquistato dal marito diritti relativi a beni dotali o a beni della comunione; 5 gli atti e le domande e seguenti che interrompono il corso dell'usucapione di beni immobili e seguenti.

L'interruzione non ha effetto riguardo ai terzi che hanno acquistato diritti dal possessore in base a un atto trascritto o iscritto, se non dalla data della trascrizione dell'atto o della domanda att. Alla domanda giudiziale e equiparato l'atto notificato con il quale la parte, in presenza di compromesso o di clausola compromissoria, dichiara all'altra la propria intenzione di promuovere il procedimento arbitrale, propone la domanda e procede, per quanto le spetta, alla nomina degli arbitri.Beckhaus, supra n.

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Giornate del cinema muto pdf online. In fact, in continental Europe where the right of access to information and evidence under procedural rules is more limited than in the Anglo-American tradition, substan- 40 R.

She had two of her PR communications techs with but a human attitude of profound reflection, failed, about thick disks actually stars. Consequently, the duty of truthful disclosure pro- hibits not only conscious lies and omissions, but also in- accurate or incomplete statements to the best possible knowledge of a party.

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One first solution 71 With reference to Germany: R. Deve essere anche indicata la trascrizione anteriormente eseguita, se si tratta dello stesso ufficio, e, se si tratta di ufficio diverso, deve essere presentato il certificato della trascrizione medesima.

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