HOW CAR ENGINE WORKS PDF

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NSW Department of Education and Training (DET) All rights reserved. This work is copyrighted, but permission is given to trainers and teachers to make. How engine works. TD. Note: 1ère. Page 1 sur 6. Smaïl GOUMEZIANE – Lycée Georges CORMIER. Worksheet. 1. How a car engine Works. The process by. Learn how these engine parts work together. How Car Engines Work Single cylinder engines are typical of most lawn mowers, but usually cars have more.


How Car Engine Works Pdf

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How Car Engines ichwarmaorourbia.ml - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The simplest and most common type of engine comprises four vertical cylinders close together in a row. This is known as an in-line engine. Cars with capacities. Apr 10, An easy-to-understand explanation of gasoline engines, with an animation showing how a cylinder works.

Car engines

Or, to put it another way, for every dollar you put in your gas tank, 85 cents are wasted in various ways! Cars waste most of the energy we feed them in fuel. In stop-start city driving, only about 17 percent of the energy in gasoline green slice provides useful power to move you down the road. The other 83 percent is wasted red slices in the engine, in parasitic losses in things like the alternator, which makes electricity , and in the drivetrain between the engine and the wheels.

Things are a bit better on the highway, where useful power can nudge up to 25 percent or slightly more. Even so, the bulk of the energy is still wasted. Fuel Economy: March, All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use. Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid.

Woodford, Chris. Retrieved from https: You are here: Car engines. How does a four-stroke engine make power? Watch this animation and you'll see that a car engine makes its power by endlessly repeating a series of four steps called strokes: The piston green is pulled down inside the cylinder gray by the momentum of the crankshaft gray wheel at the bottom. Most of the time the car is moving along, so the crankshaft is always turning.

The inlet valve left opens, letting a mixture of fuel and air blue cloud into the cylinder through the purple pipe.

The inlet valve closes. The piston moves back up the cylinder and compresses squeezes the fuel-air mixture, which makes it much more flammable. When the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, the sparking plug yellow fires. The spark ignites the fuel-air mixture causing a mini explosion. The fuel burns immediately, giving off hot gas that pushes the piston back down.

The energy released by the fuel is now powering the crankshaft.

The outlet valve right opens. As the crankshaft continues to turn, the piston is forced back up the cylinder for a second time.

How Car Engines Work

It forces the exhaust gases produced when the fuel burned out through the exhaust outlet blue pipe. The whole cycle then repeats itself. How many cylinders does an engine need? How big do the cylinders need to be?

How can we make cleaner engines? So why do we still use gasoline?

Sponsored links. Find out more On this website You might like these other articles on our site covering related topics: Jones and Bartlett, A good introduction to how cars work, mainly aimed at mechanics. Section 2 covers engines in detail.

Other books: KAMBI CARTOON PDF

American Horsepower by Mike Mueller. MotorBooks International, Great photos and detailed descriptions of some of the greatest car engines of the last years. A detailed look at 20 classic engines. The People's Tycoon: Vintage, A huge and wonderfully readable account of the world's greatest car maker and his often contrary thoughts and ways. For younger readers Car Science by Richard Hammond. Dorling Kindersley, Cars can teach you about science and science can teach you about cars!

I was one of the consultants and contributors to this very colorful, lavishly illustrated book. Most suitable for ages 9—12—and a great read for car-mad "youngsters" of all ages.

Eyewitness Car by Richard Sutton. A classic DK Eyewitness book that combines science, technology, and history. Various different editions available since the s. Also for ages 9— Speedy Publishing, A basic page introduction for the youngest of car enthusiasts, probably best for ages 6—8.

Two things to note: Diesel engines are one form and gas turbine engines are another. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. A steam engine in old-fashioned trains and steam boats is the best example of an external combustion engine.

The engine

The fuel coal, wood, oil, whatever in a steam engine burns outside the engine to create steam, and the steam creates motion inside the engine. Internal combustion is a lot more efficient takes less fuel per mile than external combustion, plus an internal combustion engine is a lot smaller than an equivalent external combustion engine.

This explains why we don't see any cars from Ford and GM using steam engines. If you put a tiny amount of high-energy fuel like gasoline in a small, enclosed space and ignite it, an incredible amount of energy is released in the form of expanding gas.

You can use that energy to propel a potato feet. In this case, the energy is translated into potato motion. You can also use it for more interesting purposes. Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to convert gasoline into motion.

The four-stroke approach is also known as the Otto cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented it in The four strokes are: The piston is connected to the crankshaft by a connecting rod.

As the crankshaft revolves, it has the effect of "resetting the cannon. The piston starts at the top, the intake valve opens, and the piston moves down to let the engine take in a cylinder-full of air and gasoline. This is the intake stroke.

Only the tiniest drop of gasoline needs to be mixed into the air for this to work. Compression makes the explosion more powerful. When the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the spark plug emits a spark to ignite the gasoline.

The gasoline charge in the cylinder explodes, driving the piston down. Once the piston hits the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder to go out the tailpipe. Now the engine is ready for the next cycle, so it intakes another charge of air and gas. Notice that the motion that comes out of an internal combustion engine is rotational, while the motion produced by a potato cannon is linear straight line.

In an engine the linear motion of the pistons is converted into rotational motion by the crankshaft. The rotational motion is nice because we plan to turn rotate the car's wheels with it anyway. The engine described above has one cylinder. That is typical of most lawn mowers, but most cars have more than one cylinder four, six and eight cylinders are common. In a multi-cylinder engine, the cylinders usually are arranged in one of three ways: Different configurations have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of smoothness, manufacturing cost and shape characteristics.

These advantages and disadvantages make them more suitable for certain vehicles. Petroleum fuels are made from hydrocarbons: the molecules inside consist mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms with a fewer other elements, such as oxygen, attached for good measure.

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Wood , paper , and coal also contain hydrocarbons. We can turn hydrocarbons into useful energy simply by burning them. When you burn hydrocarbons in air, their molecules split apart. The carbon and hydrogen combine with oxygen from the air to make carbon dioxide gas and water, while the energy that held the molecules together is released as heat.

This process, which is called combustion, releases huge amounts of energy.

When you sit round a camp fire, warming yourself near the flames, you're really soaking up energy produced by billions of molecules cracking open and splitting apart! Photo: Why does the world use so much oil?

There are now about a billion petroleum-powered cars on the planet and, as this chart shows, even the most energy-efficient models burn through at least 10 barrels gallons of petroleum in a year. People have been burning hydrocarbons to make energy for over a million years—that's why fire was invented.

But ordinary fires are usually quite inefficient. When you cook sausages on a camp fire, you waste a huge amount of energy. Heat shoots off in all directions; hardly any goes into the cooking pot—and even less into the food. Car engines are much more efficient: they waste less energy and put more of it to work.

What's so clever about them is that they burn fuel in closed containers, capturing most of the heat energy the fuel releases, and turning it into mechanical energy that can drive the car along. What are the main parts of a car engine?

Car engines are built around a set of "cooking pots" called cylinders usually anything from two to twelve of them, but typically four, six, or eight inside which the fuel burns. The cylinders are made of super-strong metal and sealed shut, but at one end they open and close like bicycle pumps: they have tight-fitting pistons plungers that can slide up and down inside them. At the top of each cylinder, there are two valves essentially "gates" letting things in or out that can be opened and closed very quickly.

The inlet valve allows fuel and air to enter the cylinder from a carburetor or electronic fuel-injector; the outlet valve lets the exhaust gases escape. At the top of the cylinder, there is also a sparking plug or spark plug , an electrically controlled device that makes a spark to set fire to the fuel. At the bottom of the cylinder, the piston is attached to a constantly turning axle called a crankshaft. The crankshaft powers the car's gearbox which, in turn, drives the wheels.

How does a four-stroke engine make power?

Watch this animation and you'll see that a car engine makes its power by endlessly repeating a series of four steps called strokes : Intake: The piston green is pulled down inside the cylinder gray by the momentum of the crankshaft gray wheel at the bottom. Most of the time the car is moving along, so the crankshaft is always turning. The inlet valve left opens, letting a mixture of fuel and air blue cloud into the cylinder through the purple pipe. Compression: The inlet valve closes.

The piston moves back up the cylinder and compresses squeezes the fuel-air mixture, which makes it much more flammable. When the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, the sparking plug yellow fires. Power: The spark ignites the fuel-air mixture causing a mini explosion.In an engine the linear motion of the pistons is converted into rotational motion by the crankshaft. Heat shoots off in all directions; hardly any goes into the cooking pot—and even less into the food.

What changed things? The piston moves back up the cylinder and compresses squeezes the fuel-air mixture, which makes it much more flammable. The cylinders are made of super-strong metal and sealed shut, but at one end they open and close like bicycle pumps: It's not just how many cylinders a car has that's important but how much power each one can make as it pushes out its piston.

With around a billion cars on the planet, the pollution produced by vehicles is a serious—and still growing—problem.

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